Peru is an Andean country located on the Pacific coast of South America, with a population of 32.8 million people. Its topographic variation, particularily its central mountain ranges, divide the country into three main climatic zones. The Pacific Coast zone is one of the driest regions in the world and where most of the Peruvian population lives. The Andean zone has microclimates depending on the different altitudes and rainfall, but generally has a temperate climate. Finally, the Amazon zone has a tropical climate and higher rainfall, but also the lowest population of all three zones. This creates multiple challenges regarding water and sanitation management.
A rich source of information for measuring the current state of access to water and sanitation are household surveys. Throughout Latin America and the Carribean, household surveys provide us with representative data of the countries' population, validated by statistical institutes, which allow cross-checking with other social statistics such as area, income, and gender breakdowns.
This page relies heavily on the 2020 National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) which surveyed 34,490 representative households. The survey collects some data on water in its household surveys according to the WHO / UNICEF guidelines; however, it does not allow for differentiation between categories of improved non-piped water or ask about exclusive sanitation facilities.
For more information on why OLAS uses household surveys, click here.